System Protection Technology

2109 — Line Protection

Duration: 4.0 Hour(s)

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Power Transmission

Power Distribution


The objective of this module is to present the broad categories of line configuration and discuss the various types of protection schemes that are employed. Particular attention is paid to coordination for selective tripping and isolation of faulty circuits.

After study of this tape and the associated workbook, participants should be able to understand the following overall concepts and apply them to their day-to-day work activities. They will also be able to answer related test questions on these subjects:

  • Classification of lines and feeders
  • Typical system configurations
  • Faults on radial and loop systems
  • Reclosing arrangements
  • Breaker failure protection
  • Application of overcurrent relays
  • Setting of relay pickup and time dial
  • Coordination with downstream fuses and reclosers
  • Coordination procedure for loop systems
  • Maximum and minimum fault levels
  • Application of instantaneous overcurrent relays
  • Voltage control (restraint) overcurrent relays
  • Ground fault protection with directional overcurrent relays
  • Polarizing sources; current; voltage
  • Polarizing by negative sequence voltage
  • Effects of mutual induction
  • Limitations of overcurrent relays
  • Characteristics of distance relays
  • RX diagram
  • Protection zones; primary and backup
  • Multiple lines and power sources
  • Tapped lines; multi-terminal lines
  • Ground fault protection by distance relays
  • Backup protection


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