System Protection Technology

2102 — Types of Protective Relays

Duration: 4.0 Hour(s)

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Power Transmission

Power Distribution


The objectives of this module is to demonstrate the operation of the most common types of protective relay. This in turn will prepare the participant for succeeding modules which deal with protective schemes often using a combination of these relays.

After study of this module, the participants should be able to understand the following overall concepts and apply them to their day-to-day work activities. They will also be able to answer related test questions on these subjects:

  • Components of the differential relay
  • Where differential protection is applied
  • The differential principle – bus protection
  • Transformer differential protection
  • Restraint and harmonic restraint
  • Components of the overcurrent relay
  • Instantaneous overcurrent protection
  • Time-overcurrent protection
  • Adjustment of pick-up and time dial
  • Construction of directional relays
  • The need for directional elements
  • Operation of directional relays
  • The induction cylinder relay
  • Operation of distance relays – balanced beam and MHO type
  • Circle diagrams
  • Effect of load impedance
  • Three-zone elements; back-up protection


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